Irfan Maulana

Dewasa ini, ruang lingkup pesantren kerap mendapat pertanyaan publik perihal keamanan lembaga agama ini dari tindak kekerasan seksual. Seperti yang banyak masyarakat ketahui, kasus kekerasan seksual dialami oleh santriwati asal Jombang yang dilakukan oleh putra kiainya yang juga gurunya. Kasus tersebut menunjukkan kekerasan seksual kerap dilakukan oleh orang yang memiliki kuasa terhadap orang lain. Dengan fakta demikian, mampukah pesantren memenuhi kewajibannya memberi rasa aman kepada para santri dari kekerasan seksual?

Pesantren ialah lembaga yang menerapkan ajaran agama Islam dalam kesehariannya. Dengan mendapat ajaran agama Islam langsung dari para pengajar dan mempraktekkannya dalam kesehariannya, orang tua mempercayakan pesantren sebagai tempat tumbuh kembang putra- putrinya. Namun, bila yang terjadi malah jauh sebaliknya, bagaimana meresponnya?

Di tahun 2021 bulan September, terungkap bahwa telah terjadi kekerasan seksual kepada 26 santri di bawah umur yang dilakukan oleh gurunya di salah satu pesantren di Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan. Kasus ini terungkap lantaran salah satu dari korban mengeluh sakit di bagian alat kelaminnya. Orang tua korban membawanya ke dokter dan pemeriksaan menujukkan telah terjadi kekerasan seksual kepada korban. Tersangka kini telah dikenakan pasal dan harus mempertanggungajwabkan perbuatannya. Dengan demikian, kasus tersebut bisa terungkap lantaran ada komunikasi antara korban dengan orang tuanya. Bila tidak ada komunikasi tersebut, bisa saja tersangka masih melakukan tindakannya hingga saat ini.

Dalam kasus lain, terjadi kekerasan seksual kepada santri perempuan di Jombang pada tahun 2017 dengan pelaku ialah anak dari seorang kiai. Seringkali pelaku kekerasan seksual di lingkungan pesantren ialah guru/kiai atau anak dari guru yang merasa memiliki kuasa atas santri/muridnya. Menunjukkan adanya relasi kuasa yang buruk dan penyalahgunaan kekuasaan dari para pelaku. Pada kasus ini, pelaku berdalih memiliki kemampuan ilmu metafakta dimana pelaku menganggap dirinya memiliki kebebasan untuk menikahi siapapun. Dalam kesempatan itu-lah, tersangka melakukan kejahatan seksual kepada korban. Merespon kasus ini, Front Santri Melawan Kekerasan Seksual telah menyampaikan beberapa tuntutan kepada pihak kepolisian. Namun, merujuk laporan Tempo.co, hingga Mei 2021, kasus ini masih berjalan di tempat dan belum menemui titik terang.

Lawler dan Talbot (2012) menyatakan pelecehan seksual terhadap anak dapat menimbulkan trauma dan stigma bagi anak dan keluarganya. Lawler dan Talbot menambahkan, pulih atau tidaknya anak yang menjadi korban pelecehan seksual bergantung pada dukungan keluarga atau masyarakat dan perlindungan dari kejahatan seksual lebih lanjut. Menurut Lowder dan Oliphant (2012) dalam Ensiklopedia Citra Tubuh dan Penampilan Manusia, pelecehan seksual telah terbukti

memiliki efek emosional dan fisik yang bertahan lama pada perempuan tanpa memandang usia saat trauma terjadi. Lowder dan Oliphant (2012) menegaskan bahwa perempuan yang mengalami pelecehan seksual sulit untuk mempercayai sebuah hubungan, kepercayaan diri menurutn, timbul beberapa masalah seksual, dan berkemungkinan tinggi menyalahgunakan obat terlarang. Dalam sebuah hadis, Nabi bersabda: “Jika kepala salah satu seorang di antara kalian ditusuk jarum besi, itu lebih baik daripada meraba-raba perempuan yang bukan istri kalian.” (HR.At-Tabrani)

Merujuk pada penelitian Lawler dan Talbot, bila yang menjadi korban pelecehan ialah seorang anak, ia membutuhkan dukungan dari keluarga dan masyarakat untuk pulih. Sedang menurut Lowder dan Oliphant, kekerasan seksual mampu menimbulkan kerugian fisik dan psikis yang besar terhadap korban berupa kehilangan kepercayaan diri dan akan menimbulkan permasalahan seksual. Sementara itu, dalam sebuah hadis Nabi telah melarang dengan tegas tindakan kekerasan seksual berupa lebih baik kepala ditusuk jarum besi daripada melakukan kekerasan seksual.

Berdasarkan data dan analisa tersebut, salah satu langkah nyata untuk menyelamatkan dan melindungi korban kekerasan seksual adalah dengan membentuk sebuah jaringan. Kasus pertama, kekerasan seksual kepada anak di Sumatera Selatan, mampu terungkap lantaran sang berkomunikasi dengan orang tuanya bila ia merasa sakit di bagian kelaminnya. Sedang kasus kedua, meskipun belum tuntas, setidaknya Front Santri Melawan Kekerasan Seksual mempu memberi pembelaan kepada korban dengan aksi mereka yang muncul lantaran mereka membentuk sebuah jaringan.

Berjejaring di pesantren bisa dilakukan dengan cara membentuk sebuah forum yang concern kepada isu-isu seksualitas dengan mengadakan kajian di setiap minggunya. Langkah ini membutuhkan keberanian yang pasti berbuah manis di belakang dengan semakin tumbuhnya ruang aman dari kekerasan seksual di pesantren. Forum kajian seksualitas ini diharapkan meliterasikan seksualitas dengan memberi pemahaman kepada seluruh santri tentang berbahayanya tindakan kekerasan seksual, terlebih memberi bantuan kepada korban yang seringkali submisif dan pasif. Namun, bila berada di pesantren yang teramat konservatif, para santri bisa membangun jejaring dengan lembaga masyarakat yang mampu memberi perlindungan kepada mereka dari kejahatan seksual, semisal Front Santri Melawan Kekerasan Seksual atau Lembaga Bantuan Hukum di sekitar. Apabila santri masih di bawah umur dan di pesantren belum terbentuk ruang yang aman dari kejahatan seksual, orang tua perlu berjejaring dengan anak berupa terus menjaga komunikasi dengan sang anak untuk melindungi anak dari tindakan kekerasan seksual. Membentuk sebuah jaringan di pesantren memang tidak mudah, namun itu ikhtiar kita untuk mewujudkan pesantren yang aman dari kejahatan seksual.

Referensi

Alaidrus, Fadiyah. 2020. ‘Duduk Perkara Skandal Kasus Kekerasan Seksual di Pesantren Jombang’. Tirto.id. Diakses pada 10 November 2021.

J.L. Lowder, S. Oliphant,. 2012. ‘Gynecologic Conditions and Body Image’. Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance. Diakses pada 10 November 2021.

M.J. Lawler, E.B. Talbot,. 2012. ‘Childe Abuse’. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Second Edition). Diakses pada 10 November 2021.

Trianita, Linda. 2021. ‘Mandi Kemben Putra Kiai’. Tempo.co. Diakses pada 10 November 2021.

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